Porcelain veneers is a cosmetic and restorative treatment method applied to correct defects of the teeth. It allows changing the shape, colour and size of crooked, damaged or gapped teeth. Porcelain veneers is one of methods that give an aesthetic appearance to the teeth. It provides a natural appearance similar to tooth enamel; it is durable and long-lasting. Laminates, also called leaf porcelain, is a translucent layer that fits well with the teeth. Anesthesia is not usually required during the procedure, which is performed through the attrition of the intact tooth tissue. At least 2 or 3 visits are needed for laminated crowning. However, this period may vary depending on the condition and number of the teeth. Porcelain laminate veneers can be applied to anyone over the age of 18.
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Porcelain veneers is a treatment method applied to improve the appearance of damaged or defective teeth. It is performed to change the colour and shape of the teeth, to close the gaps between the teeth or to correct misaligned teeth. Porcelain crowns are nail-thick shells that are specially designed and produced in a laboratory for each patient after the measurement and reproduction of the teeth, and then attached on the teeth.
It is very similar to natural tooth enamel and it is long-lasting. Before attaching porcelain crowns, approximately 2 mm of tissue must be removed all around from the tooth. For porcelain laminates, it is sufficient to only abrade 0.3 – 0.7 mm from the front surface. (1)
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Crowns are thin shells placed over your existing teeth to improve their appearance. There are 2 types of tooth crowning methods: porcelain and composite. Porcelain is a kind of glass, resistant to stains and long-lasting. Composite crowns are made of a tooth-coloured resin, close to plastic in nature, and are sensitive to stains because they are porous.
Directly reproduced composite crowns from slightly roughened tooth can be attached in a single visit, lasting 30 to 60 minutes, and anesthesia is not often required. Composite crown is easy to apply and costs less than porcelain crowns, but it is not as strong as porcelain. It can be preferred especially in closing gaps between the teeth and repairing stained or slightly damaged teeth; it is effective on small areas. (2)
Application process is different in indirect composite crowns. They are produced exclusively in a dental laboratory. Temporary crown is attached on the tooth during this production period. When the crown is ready, it is placed on the tooth with a special adhesive. They are more durable against attrition and fracture than direct composite crowns, but they are more expensive. (3)
Types of porcelain teeth may vary depending on material that supports main material or the number of teeth to be crowned, and the condition of the tooth.
Full ceramic crown is used to remove the teeth with excessively incurred material losses or recover the damages due to the fractures. It is the most advanced crowning type made of porcelain or reinforced porcelain in its substructure. It adheres strongly to the tooth and maintains its natural appearance even in case of the gingival recession.
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Before crowning, the teeth are prepared for crowning by excising around teeth to be crowned appropriately. Then the facial and lingual faces of the tooth are crowned with the produced cover. (4)
It is a method applied by placing porcelain on a metal-basis in a way to fit the tooth. This crown is disadvantageous due to graying on the edge of the gingiva as a result of the oxidation of the metal in time and the necessity to excise more of the teeth. However, it is preferred as it is durable and cheaper. It is mostly applied to the posterior teeth as it is not recommended for the anterior teeth due to aesthetical concerns.
It is a type of crowns that is very durable, natural looking, and its cold and warm sensitivity is minimal. Semimetal zirconium is aesthetic enough to be used on the anterior teeth and durable enough to be used on the posterior teeth. (5)
These are very thin porcelain shells especially applied to the anterior teeth and they are more expensive than the alternatives. During the application, the facial side of the tooth is slightly abraded (0.3 – 0.7mm) and this thinned part is crowned with a thin porcelain like nail extensions. (6)
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During the first visit, patient is informed about the procedure and the teeth are examined, and x-ray is taken if necessary. A model is reproduced measuring the teeth of the patient or a three-dimensional image of the teeth is obtained using computer technology.
These models or images are sent to a dental laboratory for the production of crowns. It usually takes 2 to 3 weeks for the crowns to be ready, so you will need 2 to 3 visits for treatment. This period may vary depending on the number of teeth to be crowned.
In the next visit, the patient’s teeth are thoroughly cleaned and the correct colour for the crowns is determined. In order for the crowns to adhere to the teeth easily, the enamel layer is slightly abraded and measured again. A temporary crown is placed on the tooth until porcelain crowns are produced.
When a porcelain crown is ready, it is placed temporarily to observe its compatibility for several days before permanently bonding to tooth. At the end of the period, after patient and the dentist agree on the form and colour, the crowns are fixed with a special adhesive, hardened with photocuring, excess is cleaned, and finally tooth is polished. The patient is called for a check-up a few weeks later, to check how gingiva reacts to the crowns.
Porcelain tooth crown prices vary depending on where they are applied and how many crowns you need. Porcelain tooth crown is very costly due to special materials used, delicate laboratory processes, and expertise it requires. In UK and USA, average price per tooth can vary between 500 USD and 2000 USD.
Produced as an alternative to metal braces with the development of orthodontic technology, porcelain or transparent braces are especially preferred by adults and those with aesthetic concerns. Porcelain braces do not attract attention as they are made of glass-like material. They are also stainless dental braces.
Porcelain braces can be applied to anyone whose mouth and teeth structures are suitable. The treatment of porcelain braces takes longer than metal braces; however, it is completed in approximately 1 to 2.5 years.
Porcelain crowning is an irreversible dental procedure, as the teeth are abraded. However, it has a certain lifetime; crowns may need to be removed due to the changes in the mouth and gingiva over time. It is possible to remove the crown from the tooth forcing the crown edge with the crown removers produced for the process.
However, if it is not applied by an experienced dentist, the crowned tooth may be fractured. After grooving crowns with a long and laborious process, the crown is cut and removed from the tooth.
Porcelain laminate teeth are bonded using very strong adhesives. The risk of falling out is almost non-existent, but you should never try to put excessive pressure on your teeth. Avoid habits such as biting very hard foods and nail biting.
Porcelain laminate teeth can be used for a very long time, i.e. 10 to 20 years, with a good oral care.
The planning and production&application phase of porcelain laminate teeth requires a precise working process, so it costs more than other applications.
Resources and References:1- Cosmetic dentistry2- Veneers3- Dental veneer4- Dental treatments
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